Does simultaneous cardio- and resistance training compromise training adaptations?

Summer has passed and with winter waiting around the corner, fitness and sport enthusiasts are retreating back indoors to work out. A look behind the doors of public gyms reveals that typically weight and cardio machines are similarly popular and often even used within the same training program; a fact which is of no surprise as global exercise recommendations strongly recommend both cardio- and resistance training for the improvement of physical fitness and the prevention of chronic diseases. However, much controversy exists as to what the most beneficial training regimens are and whether simultaneous cardio- and resistance training will compromise positive long term adaptations.

The question is, does the mode of combined cardio- and resistance training matter and can endurance athletes also benefit from supplementary resistance training?

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